Global Research, April 24, 2012
Global Research, April 24, 2012
To the world’s military leaders, the debate over climate change is long over. They are preparing for a new kind of Cold War in the Arctic, anticipating that rising temperatures there will open up a treasure trove of resources and long-dreamed-of sea-lanes. Rick Rozoff scrutinizes the feverish military activity taking place in the High North, under the official label of a joint Norwegian-NATO-Partnership for Peace endeavor, including preparedness drills against terrorist threats, mass demonstrations...and spies coming in from the cold!
The largest military exercise in the High North, inside and immediately outside the Arctic Circle, since the end of the Cold War (and perhaps even before) was completed on March 21 in northern Norway.
Except for the crash of a Norwegian military transport plane in Sweden during its course the world would have been unaware of it.
Cold Response 2012 was conducted from March 12-21 primarily in Norway but also in Sweden with the participation of 16,300 troops from fifteen nations as part of full spectrum – air, sea, infantry and special forces – maneuvers against the backdrop of the past three years’ new scramble for the Arctic.
The term High North is a translation of the Norwegian designation nordområdene which was adopted by NATO in January of 2009 for its two-day Seminar on Security Prospects in the High North in Reykjavík, Iceland attended by the bloc’s secretary general, chairman of its Military Committee and two top military commanders, the Supreme Allied Commander Europe and the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation.
Four of the five Arctic claimants – the United States, Canada, Norway and Denmark – are members of NATO. The other, Russia, is not. In 2010 Norway became the first Arctic nation to move its military command center within the Arctic Circle, transferring the Norwegian Operational Command Headquarters from Stavanger to Bodø, a five-story complex built during the Cold War to withstand a nuclear attack. The preceding year Norway purchased 48 Lockheed Martin F-35 fifth generation multirole fighters.
Last month’s Cold Response was the largest of five such exercises held since 2006. The first was the largest military exercise ever conducted in Norway, with 10,000 troops from eleven nations. All NATO member states, at the time 26, were invited to participate.
The next, in 2007, included 8,500 military personnel. The third, in 2009, consisted of 7,000 troops from eleven nations and the fourth, in 2010, included 8,500 soldiers from fourteen nations.
This year’s Arctic drills were almost twice as large in terms of troop numbers as any preceding one.
Information on the exercise was scarce before, during and after the event; even the full roster of participating nations was not disclosed by the Norwegian military.
According to the website of the Norwegian Armed Forces, military forces from fifteen nations were involved – NATO members Norway, the U.S., Britain, France, Canada and the Netherlands – as well as Partnership for Peace affiliate Sweden, part of whose territory was employed for the exercise.
The other eight nations were not identified but the exercise was described as a joint Norwegian-NATO-Partnership for Peace undertaking. One of only a handful of English-language reports on the subject, from Finland, confirmed that nation’s participation. Finland and Sweden are for all intents the 29th and 30th members of the Alliance.
The other Partnership for Peace states involved are likely to have been, among others, former Soviet republics like Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ukraine.
According to the Norwegian Armed Forces, “The main purpose of this year’s winter exercise is to rehearse high intensity operations in winter conditions within NATO with a UN mandate.”
The source added: “Participants will rehearse deploying and using military reaction forces in an area of crisis where they have to handle everything from high intensity warfare to terror threats and mass demonstrations. The soldiers have to balance the use of diplomatic and military force.”
High-intensity warfare, terror threats and mass demonstrations in the Arctic…
It also described live-fire infantry, naval and air – with the participation of fighter jets and helicopters operating from several Norwegian and Swedish bases and from aircraft carriers – components of the exercise.
The ground forces included U.S. Marines. According to the Marine Corps Times, “After years of fighting in a desert environment, most Marines may not think of the North Pole often, but the area abounds with oil, gas and other minerals, making it one of the most contentious regions of the world.”
The same source quoted a national security and Arctic expert at the Washington, D.C.-based Center for a New American Security with the improbable name of Will Rogers:
“The importance of why we need forces capable of operating in the Arctic is very basic power projection — to make a show to other players in the international community that we are an Arctic nation, and we are going to protect our interests in the Arctic Circle.”
Britain deployed HMS Illustrious, its last-remaining aircraft carrier, which had to return home early for repairs after being rammed by a tugboat, thereby eliciting a few paragraphs in the Daily Mail.
A Norwegian C-130 Super Hercules military transport plane crashed in Sweden, killing five soldiers. A memorial service was presided over by King Harald V, the titular commander-in-chief of the Norwegian armed forces.
The assault ship HMS Bulwark accompanied HMS Illustrious, which carried eight helicopters, and the first landed British commandos as well as American and Dutch troops, equipment and vehicles on the northern Norwegian coast.
In the words of the commanding officer of the Bulwark:
“It is not simply park the ship and offload it. In war – and therefore in training – we have to take account of the environment, enemy forces in the air, sea, and on land, coordinate people into boats and naval helicopters, all to arrive on target, in the right order, at the right time, to achieve the battle-winning effect. Few navies deliver this successfully and most aspirants look to the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, and Fleet Air Arm, with our war-proven capability, for guidance – on the sea in the air and on the land.”
Regarding “war-proven capability(ies),” Defense Media Network quoted U.S. Marine Corps Brigadier General James M. Lariviere, commanding general of 4th Marine Division, present for the occasion:
“It was an opportunity to interact with our allies. Many of them are veterans of Iraq, Afghanistan, and anti-piracy task forces off the coast of Somalia. They all have a lot of experience working with the U.S. and our allies in various capacities…”
The U.S. uses the Bjugn Cave Facility in Norway’s Fosen peninsula for Marine Corps Prepositioning Program Norway, the Marine Corps’ only land-based prepositioning program. According to a U.S. European Command article of last year:
The newspaper also quoted a Finnish military media and communications officer stating, ”It would be silly to rehearse a situation if it were not realistic.”
A Swedish website, which identified Denmark, Spain, Estonia, Latvia and Switzerland as having also supplied units for Cold Response, published a synopsis of the scenario for the Swedish part of the exercise provided by the Swedish Armed Forces, which included:
A “strange group of people” have settled in northern Sweden and established a state called “Gardaland” from which they have invaded “an area in Norway,” after which NATO intervenes under a United Nations mandate.
The Ministry of Defence of the Netherlands reported a potpourri of unrelated and even conflicting scenarios that leaves the door open for any pretext for military intervention:
The Standing NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 1 was deployed to the Norwegian Arctic island city of Tromsø for the exercise. NATO established a Joint Warfare Centre in Stavanger, which at the time hosted the nation’s military command headquarters, in 2003. According to NATO’s Norfolk, Virginia-based Supreme Allied Command Transformation, the center is “the jewel in the Crown of Allied Command Transformation”.
On the opening day of this year’s Cold Response, Igor Korotchenko of Russia’s National Security Journal put the event in geopolitical perspective:
“The current military drill takes place amid NATO’s increased activities in the Arctic. Apparently, NATO is set on obtaining a share of Arctic resources and is carrying out the naval exercises to demonstrate that its geopolitical and diplomatic efforts lean on military might.”
Vladimir Yevseyev of the International Security Center of the Institute of Global Economy and International Relations, as cited by Voice of Russia, added:
The last sentence is an allusion to the U.S.-NATO sea- and land-based interceptor missile system, which thus far is limited to Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea but could well expand into the Norwegian, Barents, Baltic and Black Seas in future.
The Western campaign for global dominance has reached the top of the world.
Rick Rozoff is a frequent contributor to Global Research.
I have heard much speculation that HAARP caused the earthquake in China in May, 2008. Does the real science back this speculation?
This is the website for HAARP
This speculation seems to be unjustified.
There was a Chinese video of the sky before the May 2008 earthquake. I addressed this phenomenon on this post:
(1) Earthquakes have happened before HAARP even existed.
Earthquakes have happened before in China, in 1927 (7.9), in 1932,(7.6), and 1976 (7.5), all before HAARP was established in 1990. So, just because another earthquake happened in China, does not mean it is correlated with HAARP. See history map below.
(2)The earth is shifting in plates. The earth may be affected by electromagnetic activity of the sun, or other artificial devices, but it has its own electromagnetic and mechanical activity as well.
The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth’s electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth surface and the ionosphere. Schumann resonance occurs because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a waveguide.
Since the early days of radio, in the age of Nikolai Tesla,it has been known the earth has a natural electromagnetic resonance of its own. If you take your receiver and tune below the Schumann Resonance down to about 0.9 or 1 Hz you will hear static from yet another resonant source. This is the Alfven Resonance. there are primarily three schools of thought about the source of the Alfven Resonance. These are: (1) magnetospheric, (2) ionospheric and (3) lithospheric interactions with radio waves. The Alfven Resonance may not be due to radio waves in the air, but is actually coming from the earth due to random seismic activity around the planet.
The magnetosphere is there to protect the earth from the solar winds.
The lithosphere (geosphere) is the “solid” part of Earth. It has two parts, the crust and the upper mantle.The crust is Earth’s outermost layer. The crust varies from 5 to 70 kilometers in thickness. The crust includes rocks, minerals, and soil. There are two kinds of crust: continental and oceanic. Yes, there is even crust under the ocean!
The crust is constantly moving, which is why continents move and earthquakes happen. The science that studies how the parts of the crust move is called “Plate Tectonics.”
Earth’s oceanic crust is a thin layer of dense rock about 5 kilometers thick. The continental crust is less dense, with lighter-colored rock, that varies from 30 to 70 kilometers thick. The continental crust is older and thicker than the oceanic crust.
The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because, among other functions, it influences radio propagation to distant places on the Earth. It is located in the Thermosphere.
The lowest part of the Earth’s atmosphere is called the troposphere and it extends from the surface up to about 10 km (6 miles). The atmosphere above 10 km is called the stratosphere, followed by the mesosphere. It is in the stratosphere that incoming solar radiation creates the ozone layer. At heights of above 80 km (50 miles), in the thermosphere, the atmosphere is so thin that free electrons can exist for short periods of time before they are captured by a nearby positive ion. The number of these free electrons is sufficient to affect radio propagation. This portion of the atmosphere is ionizedand contains a plasma which is referred to as the ionosphere.
The ionization depends primarily on the Sun and its activity. Thus there is a diurnal (time of day) effect and a seasonal effect. The local winter hemisphere is tipped away from the Sun, thus there is less received solar radiation. The activity of the sun is associated with the sunspot cycle, with more radiation occurring with more sunspots. Radiation received also varies with geographical location (polar, auroral zones, mid-latitudes, and equatorial regions). There are also mechanisms that disturb the ionosphere and decrease the ionization. There are disturbances such as solar flares and the associated release of charged particles into the solar wind which reaches the Earth and interacts with its geomagnetic field.
(3) It has historically been more evident that earthquakes affected the ionosphere (area of HAARP activity) rather than the ionosphere affecting the earthquakes.
(a) Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth’s crust and magnetosphere
A V Guglielmi 2007 Phys.-Usp. 50 1197-1216
Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation
Abstract. Research on natural intra- and extra terrestrially produced electromagnetic waves with periods ranging from 0.2 to 600 s is reviewed. The way in which the energy of rock movements transforms into the energy of an alternating magnetic field is analyzed. Methods for detecting seismomagnetic signals against a strong background are described. In discussing the physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, the 11-year activity modulation of 1-Hz waves andponderomotive forces affecting plasma distribution are emphasized.
(b) The quaking ionosphere – earthquake disturbs ionosphere
Science News, Oct 19, 1985
On April 12, 1978, something strange happened to the ionosphere above Chatanika, Alaska. Scientists routinely monitoring the flow of ionospheric particles detected very large verticle oscillations corresponding at times to ion velocities of up to 100 meters per second. Normally, ionospheric winds travel almost exclusively in the horizontal direction. And any verticle motions –rarely larger than 2 m/sec — are usually associated with changes in the magnetic field, but no such variations were recorded that day.
The mystery was solved when Michael Kelley at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., and Robert Livingston and Mary McCready at SRI International in Menlo Park, Calif., linked the nine-hour-long ionospheric disturbance to an earthquake that had occurred 1,000 kilometers from the radar site just before the oscillations began. As discussed in the September GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, the researchers found that their data compared well with a theory developed 18 years ago, which predicts that a nuclear explosion or earthquake will excite atmospheric motion near the event much like that created when a pebble falls in water.
In order to fit the data to the model, however, they had to assume that the ionosphere was hotter than normal, suggesting that the earthquake had heated the upper atmosphere. According to Kelley, energy from earthquakes, tornadoes and weather in the lower atmosphere may play a much more important role in warming the upper atmosphere than has usually been assumed.
(c). GPS detection of total electron content variations over Indonesia and Thailand following the 26 December 2004 earthquake
We report the response of the ionosphere to the large earthquake that occurred in West Sumatra, Indonesia, at 0058 UT on December 26, 2004. We have analyzed Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained at two sites in Sumatra and at three sites in Thailand to investigate total electron content (TEC) variations. Between 14 and 40 min after the earthquake, TEC enhancements of 1.6-6.9 TEC units (TECU) were observed at subionospheric points located 360-2000 km north of the epicenter. From the time delays of the observed TEC enhancements, we find that the TEC enhancements propagated northward from the epicenter. The time delays between the earthquake and rapid increases in TEC, which occurred near the epicenter, are consistent with the idea that acoustic waves generated by the earthquake propagated into the ionosphere at the speed of sound to cause the TEC variations. A small TEC enhancement of 0.6 TECU was observed south of the epicenter, while no TEC enhancements were seen east of the epicenter. From a model calculation, we find that this directivity of the TEC variations with respect to the azimuth from the epicenter could be caused partially by the directivity in the response of the electron density variation to the acoustic waves in the neutral atmosphere.
(d) Ionospheric post-seismic perturbations following the Tokachi-Oki earthquake from high rate GPS Japanese data : wave source and propagation Ionospheric perturbations
Crespon, F. (1,2) ; Occhipinti, G. (1); Garcia, R. (1);Lognonné, P. (1) and Murakami, M. (3)(1) Institutde Physique duGlobe de Paris, Départementde Géophysique Spatialeet Planétaire, 4 avenue de Neptune, 94107, St Maurdes Fossés, France (2) Noveltis, Parc Technologique duCanal, 2 rue de l’Europe, 31520, Ramonville, France(3) Geographical Survey Institute, Geography and CrustalDynamics Research Center, Kitasato-1, Tsukuba, 305-0811
Ionospheric perturbations following the Tokachi-Oki earthquake (East of Hokkaido island) have been sensed by the high rate continuous GPS Network of Japan. Thestrong motions have produced infrasonic waves propagating into the ionosphere and generating electronic density perturbations. The electronic content along GPS satellite to GPS receiver rays is extracted from the raw data. The attenuation of infrasonic waves by the atmosphere is demonstrated on these signals. Then, the GPS data have been inverted to reconstruct 3D tomographic images of the electronic density perturbations. The ionospheric waves far from the source are propagating horizontally at the speed of seismic surface waves and vertically at the speed of sound in the atmosphere. Close to the source, the signal has been analyzed and modeled in order to constraint the source location and the source mechanism. These studies demonstrate the interest of post-seismic ionospheric perturbations to retrieve the long period strong motions that are notable inland due to the saturation of seismometers, and in the ocean due to the low number of ocean bottom seismometers.
I doubt that HAARP activity caused the China earthquake.It is more likely that the pre- and post- earthquake conditions affected the atmosphere, rather than the atmosphere affected the earthquake.