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Sunday, September 23, 2012

Submarines - Israel and Britain

Submarines - Israel



Three 1,925 ton Type 800 Dolphin class submarines have been built in German shipyards for the Israel Navy. Modern submarines with the most advanced sailing and combat systems in the world, they combine extensive sophistication with very easy operation. The purpose of these submarines is to enable the Israel Navy to meet all the tasks faced in the Mediterranean Sea in the 21st century. The submarines cost $320 million each, and are twice as big as the aging Gal-class submarines that the Israeli navy has relied on to date.

It is generally agreed that these submarines are outfitted with six 533-millimeter torpedo tubes suitable for the 21-inch torpedoes that are normally used on most submarines, including those of the United States. Some reports suggest that the submarines have a total of ten torpedo tubes -- six 533-millimeter and four 650-millimeter. Uniquely, the Soviet navy deployed the Type 65 heavy-weight torpedo using a 650-millimeter tube. The four larger 25.5 inch diameter torpedo tubes could be used to launch a long-range nuclear-capable submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM). According to some reports the submarines may be capable of carrying nuclear-armed Popeye Turbo cruise missiles, with a goal of deterring an enemy from trying to take out its nuclear weapons with a surprise attack. Under a system of rotation, two of the vessels would remain at sea: one in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, the other in the Mediterranean. A third would remain on standby.

The project initially was structured to include an industrial team consisting of HDW and Thyssen Nordseewerke, lead by Ingalls Shipbuilding. The project, under which the boats would be built in the United States by Ingalls using US FMS funds, was cancelled in 1990. The crews of the submarines started training in 1994, and participated in the building process as well as in the acceptance procedures for weapon systems. Germany donated two of these submarines to Israel, which were delivered in 1997. Israel bought a third Dolphin submarine from Germany. The project to build the Israeli Navy's third submarine, named "Tekumah ," was launched in Germany on 09 July 1998 with the participation of Defense Ministry Director General Ilan Biran and other naval officers. Tekumah [T'kuma] is the Hebrew word for "revival." The third submarine arrived in Israel during mid-1999.

A major role for hunter, killer and patrol submarines is the destruction of enemy submarines and shipping. In order to achieve this, the submarine must load, store and launch a range of stores. The submarine must also detect its target while attempting to remain covert. The Israel Navy has three Gal submarines. They were built in the 1970s at the Vickers shipyard in Britain, based on German blueprints. The Gal submarines are an important part of the main combat force of the Israel Navy. The German Type 209 diesel electric submarine is the most popular export-sales submarine in the world, and sales continue as smaller nations modernize their aging fleets. Greece was the first country to order this type of submarine from Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) of Kiel, Germany, and the first batch of these submarines entered service in 1971. The 1,200-ton Type 209 submarine is a hunter killer submarine that India purchased from HDW, Germany. The initial contract was for 2 submarines to be sold and for 4 more to be constructed at the Mazagaon docks in Mumbai. The deal however went sour when it was hit by a bribery scandal, after the first four ships were delivered to the Indian Navy.

 Advances in electric drive and power conditioning were introduced into the German Type 212. This German submarine has low and balanced signatures including acoustic signatures, longer submerged mission capability and a modern combat system with sophisticated sensors and state of the art torpedoes. The technologies inherent in this design include a fuel cell air independent propulsion (AIP) system with a back up single diesel generator, highly modular arrangements of critical areas and the frame carrying the diesel generator and auxiliary equipment such as the hydraulic pumps, compressors, etc.- is enclosed in a sound absorbent capsule and isolated from the pressure hull. The AIP system utilized is more commonly called 'MESMA'. Translated it means Autonomous Submarine Energy Module and was developed for submarines.The 1,720-ton Dolphin class is evidently somewhat larger than the 1,500-ton Type 212 submarines, and incorporates a conventional diesel-electric propulsion system rather than the AIP system.

Displacement: 1,720 tons submerged
Dimensions: 57 x 6.8 x 6.2 meters (187 x 22.5 x 20.5 feet)
Propulsion: Diesel-electric, 3 diesels, 1 shaft, 4,243 shp, 20 knots
Crew: 35
Sonar: ???
Armament: 6 21 inch torpedo tubes (14 torpedoes & Harpoon SSM)

Number  Name                   Year     Homeport   
??     Dolphin                 5/1998 
??     Leviathan               1999   
??     Tekumah                 1999

Sources and Resources


SSN Astute Class Nuclear Submarine, United Kingdom

Astute class nuclear submarine
The Royal Navy's Astute Class submarine is a nuclear-powered attack submarine which will replace the five Swiftsure Class submarines, launched between 1973 and 1977 and approaching the end of their operational life.
The initial order quantity was three, but the UK MoD has ordered an additional four, meaning seven submarines will be built under the Astute class. The performance specification of the Astute is an extension of the performance of the Trafalgar Class batch 1 fleet of the Royal Navy's Second Submarine Squadron, based at Devonport. The Trafalgar batch 1 submarines are to be decommissioned by 2022, beginning with HMS Trafalgar which was decommissioned in December 2009.
The Astute Class submarines will be based at Faslane in Scotland.

Astute Class submarine development

BAE Systems Astute Class is the prime contractor for the project and the submarines are being built at the BAE Systems Marine Barrow shipyard. The first three Astute ships were named HMS Astute (S119), HMS Ambush (S120) and HMS Artful (S121).
The fourth submarine was named HMS Audacious (S122). The fifth Astute class submarine was named HMS Anson (S123) in September 2011. The sixth and seventh will be named as HMS Agamemnon (S124) and HMS Ajax (S125) respectively.
"The Astute combat management system (ACMS) is being supplied by BAE Systems Insyte (formerly Alenia Marconi Systems)."
The keel for the first-of-class HMS Astute was laid in January 2001 and it was launched on 8 June 2007. In October 2007, HMS Astute made her first dive, for an underwater systems test, at the 'dive hole' in Devonshire Dock, Barrow. Also in October the vessel successfully carried out first firing trials from its torpedo tubes. HMS Astute was commissioned in August 2010.
The keel of HMS Ambush was laid in October 2003. It was launched in December 2010. Ambush made its first voyage in January 2011 and is currently undergoing testing and commissioning at the shipyard in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbaria. The initial dive test of the Ambush was completed in September 2011. The Ambush is expected to be commissioned by 2013.
The keel of HMS Artful was laid in March 2005 and is expected to be commissioned by 2015.
In May 2007, the UK MoD awarded BAE Systems a contract to build a fourth Astute Class submarine, HMS Audacious (S122), to enter service in 2018. The keel of Audacious was laid in March 2009.
The fifth and sixth Astute class submarines, HMS Anson (S123) and HMS Agamemnon (S124), were ordered in March 2010 and are expected to be commissioned in 2020 and 2022 respectively.
The seventh, HMS Ajax (S125) has been confirmed but the order is yet to be placed.

Command and control systems on the SSN Astute Class subs

The Astute combat management system (ACMS) is being supplied by BAE Systems Insyte (formerly Alenia Marconi Systems) and
is a development of the submarine command system (SMCS) currently in service in all classes of UK submarines.
ACMS receives data from the sonars and other sensors and, through advanced algorithms and data handling, displays real time images on the command consoles. Factory acceptance of the operational software was received from the Astute Prime Contract Office in July 2002.
EADS Defence & Security Systems and EADS Hagenuk Marinekommunikation were awarded the contract to provide the external communications systems for the Astute in August 2005.
Strachan and Henshaw are to provide the weapon handling and launch system (WHLS).
Northrop Grumman Sperry Marine was selected in March 2008 to provide the platform management system for the fourth of class, HMS Audacious.

Astute Class Tomahawk missiles

The Astute is equipped with the Tomahawk Block IV (tactical tomahawk) cruise missile from Raytheon, fired from the 533mm torpedo tubes.
Tomahawk is equipped with the TERCOM terrain contour mapping-assisted inertial navigation system. The terrain contour mapping for use over land combines onboard radar altimeter measurements with terrain mapping data installed in the missile. Block II added digital scene matching area correlation (DSMAC) guidance.
Block III improvements include an improved propulsion system and Navstar global positioning system (GPS) guidance capability. The GPS provides location and velocity data of the missile for precision targeting.
Tomahawk has a range of up to 1,000 miles and a maximum velocity of 550mph. Block IV includes a two-way satellite link that allows reprogramming of the missile in flight and transmission of battle damage indication (BDI) imagery.
Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) Block IV entered service with the UK Royal Navy in April 2008, onboard Trafalgar batch I submarine, HMS Torbay.

Torpedoes used on the nuclear-powered attack submarine

Astute has six 533mm torpedo tubes, and is equipped with Spearfish torpedoes and mines. There is capacity for a total of 36 torpedoes and missiles.
The Spearfish torpedo from BAE Systems is wire-guided with an active / passive homing head. The range is 65km at 60kt. Spearfish is fitted with a directed-energy warhead.

Countermeasure technology

The countermeasures suite includes decoys and electronic support measures (ESM). The ESM system is the Thales Sensors Outfit UAP(4). Outfit UAP(4) has two multifunction antenna arrays which are mounted on the two non-hull penetrating optronics masts from Thales (formerly Pilkington) Optronics and McTaggart Scott.
Astute Class submarines are fitted with the Royal Navy's new Eddystone Communications band Electronic Support Measures (CESM) system, also fitted to the Trafalgar Class submarines. The Eddystone system was developed by DML of Devonport UK, with Argon ST of the USA.
It provides advanced communications, signal intercept, recognition, direction-finding and monitoring capability. Sea trials of the system were completed in December 2007.


Astute is fitted with I-band navigation radars. The sonar is the Thales Underwater Systems (formerly Thomson Marconi Sonar) 2076 integrated passive / active search and attack sonar suite with bow, intercept, flank and towed arrays. Sonar 2076 has so far been fitted to Trafalgar Class submarines Torbay, Trenchant and Talent, entering service in February 2003. Astute is fitted with the latest version of the Thales S2076 integrated sonar suite.
Atlas Hydrographic provided the DESO 25 high-precision echosounder, which are fitted on the Astute. DESO 25 is capable of precise depth measurements down to 10,000m.
Astute has two non-hull-penetrating CM010 optronic masts developed by Thales Optronics. McTaggart Scott supplied the masts. The CM010 mast includes thermal imaging, low light TV and colour CCD TV sensors.
Raytheon Systems was contracted to provide the Successor IFF (identification friend or foe) naval transponder system for the Astute class.

Propulsion, power and speed

The nuclear power is provided by the Rolls-Royce PWR 2 pressurised water reactor.
"The Royal Navy's Astute Class submarine is a nuclear-powered attack submarine which will replace five Swiftsure Class submarines."
The long-life core fitted on the PWR 2 means that refuelling will not be necessary in the service life of the submarine.
The other main items of machinery are two Alstom turbines and a single shaft with a Rolls-Royce pump jet propulsor, consisting of moving rotor blades within a fixed duct.
There are two diesel alternators, one emergency drive motor and one auxiliary retractable propeller. CAE Electronics provided the digital, integrated controls and instrumentation system for steering, diving, depth control and platform management.
The PWR 2 second-generation nuclear reactor was developed for the Vanguard Class Trident submarines. Current generations of PWR would allow submarines to circumnavigate the world about 20 times, whereas the latest development of PWR would allow circumnavigation 40 times without refuelling.
The major equipment components in the development of PWR 2 were the reactor pressure vessels from Babcock Energy, main coolant pumps from GEC and from Weir, and protection and control instrumentation from Siemens Plessey and Thorn Automation.


Operation SamsonIsrael's Deployment of Nuclear Missiles on Subs from Germany

Photo Gallery: Germany Supplies Israel with Nuclear-Capable Subs

Part 3: First Submarines Are Secretly Assembled in England

A country that has the bomb is also likely to search for a safe place to store it and a safe launching platform -- a submarine, for example.

In the 1970s, Brandt and Schmidt were the first German chancellors to be confronted with the Israelis' determination to obtain submarines. Three vessels were to be built in Great Britain, using plans drawn up by the German company Industriekontor Lübeck (IKL).

But an export permit was needed to send the documents out of the country. To get around this, IKL agreed with the German Defense Ministry that the drawings would be completed on the letterhead of a British shipyard and flown on a British plane to the British town of Barrow-in-Furness, where the submarines were assembled.

Assuring Israel's security was no longer the only objective of the German-Israeli arms cooperation, which had since become a lucrative business for West German industry. In 1977, the last of the first three submarines arrived in Haifa. At the time, nobody was thinking about nuclear second-strike capability. It was not until the early 1980s, when more and more Israeli officers were returning from US military academies and raving about American submarines, that a discussion began about modernizing the Israeli navy -- and about the nuclear option.

A power struggle was raging in the Israeli military at the time. Two planning teams were developing different strategies for the country's navy. One group advocated new, larger Sa'ar 4 missile boats, while the other group wanted Israel to buy submarines instead. Israel was "a small island, where 97 percent of all goods arrive via water," said Ami Ayalon, the deputy commander of the navy at the time, who would later become head of the Israeli domestic intelligence agency, Shin Bet.

Strategic Depth

Even then it was becoming apparent, according to Ayalon, "that in the Middle East things were heading toward nuclear weapons," especially in Iraq. The fact that the Arab states were seriously interested in building the bomb changed Israel's defense doctrine, he says. "A submarine can be used as a tactical weapon for various missions, but at the center of our discussions in the 1980s was the question of whether the navy was to receive an additional task known as strategic depth," says Ayalon. "Purchasing the submarines was the country's most important strategic decision."

Strategic depth. Or nuclear second-strike capability.

At the end of the debate, the navy specified as its requirement nine corvettes and three submarines. It was "a megalomaniacal demand," as Ayalon, who would later rise to become commander-in-chief of the navy, admits today. But the navy's strategists had hopes of a budgetary miracle.
Alternatively, they were hoping for a rich beneficiary who would be willing to give Israel a few submarines.


The two men who finally catapulted Israel into the circle of modern submarine powers were Helmut Kohl and Yitzhak Rabin. Rabin's father had fought in World War II as a volunteer in the Jewish Legion of the British army, and Rabin himself led the Israeli army to victory, as its chief of staff, in the 1967 Six-Day War. In 1984, having served one term as prime minister in the mid-1960s, he moved to the cabinet, becoming the defense minister.

Rabin knew that the German government in Bonn had introduced new "political principles" for arms exports in 1982. According to the new policy, arms shipments could "not contribute to an increase in existing tensions." This malleable wording made possible the delivery of submarines to Israel, especially in combination with a famous remark once made by former Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher: "Anything that floats is OK" -- because governments generally do not use boats to oppress demonstrators or opposition forces.

After World War II, the Allies had initially forbidden Germany from building large submarines. As a result, the chief supplier to the German navy, Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW), located in the northern port city of Kiel, had shifted its focus to small, maneuverable boats that could also operate in the Baltic and North Seas. The Israelis were interested in ships that could navigate in similarly shallow waters, such as those along the Lebanese coast, where they have to be able to lie at periscope depth, listen in on radio communications and compare the sounds of ship's propellers with an onboard database. The Israelis obtained bids from the United States, Great Britain and the Netherlands, but "the German boats were the best," says an Israeli who was involved in the decision.
A few weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the German government, practically unnoticed by the general public, gave the green light for the construction of two "Dolphin"-class submarines, with an option for a third vessel.

But the strategic deal of the century almost fell through. Although the Germans had agreed to pay part of the costs, this explicitly excluded the weapons systems -- the Americans were supposed to also pay a share. But in the meantime, the Israelis had voted a new government into office that was bitterly divided over the investments.

'An Inconceivable Scenario'

In particular Moshe Arens, who was appointed defense minister in 1990, fought to stop the agreement -- with success. On Nov. 30, 1990, the Israelis notified the shipyard in Kiel that it wished to withdraw from the contract.

Was the dream of nuclear second-strike capability lost? By no means.

In January 1991, the US air force attacked Iraq, and then Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein reacted by firing modified Scud missiles at Tel Aviv and Haifa. The bombardment lasted almost six weeks. Gas masks, some of which came from Germany, were distributed to households. "It was an inconceivable scenario," recalls Ehud Barak, the current Israeli defense minister. During those days, Jewish immigrants from Russia arrived, "and we had to hand them gas masks at the airport to protect them against rockets that the Iraqis had built with the help of the Russians and the Germans."

A few days after the Scud missile bombardment began, a German military official requested a meeting at the Chancellery, presented a secret report and emptied the contents of a bag onto a table. He spread out dozens of electronic parts, components of a control system and the percussion fuse of the modified Scud missiles. They had one thing in common: They were made in Germany. Without German technology there would have been no Scuds, and without Scuds no dead Israelis.

Once again, Germany bore some of the responsibility, and that was also the message that Hanan Alon, a senior Israeli Defense Ministry official, brought to Kohl during a visit to Bonn shortly after the war began. "It would be unpleasant if it came out, through the media, that Germany helped Iraq to make poison gas, and then supplied us with the equipment against it, Mr. Chancellor," Alon said. According to Israeli officials, Alon also issued an open threat, saying: "You are certainly aware that the words gas and Germany don't sound very good together."

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